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Sound Open Firmware

Sound Open Firmware is an open source audio DSP firmware and SDK intended to provide a generic audio firmware infrastructure and development tools to the community. The firmware is BSD licensed and is platform and architecture independent. The SDK is also open source and provides a toolchain, debugger, emulator and firmware image creation tools.

The firmware and SDK are intended for developers who are interested in audio or signal processing on modern DSPs or for developers who are interested in micro kernels running on small but powerful processors.

SOF currently targets the Cadence xtensa architecture DSPs found on some Intel based devices like the Minnowboard MAX. SOF is modular and generic so can be ported to other DSP architectures or host platforms.

The Sound Open Firmware SDK comprises of five source components :-

1) Sound Open Firmware source code. The firmware is written in C with some architecture specific assembler and does not link to any external dependencies.

2) Sound Open Firmware tools. These are bespoke tools required to convert firmware from the ELF file format to formats understood by the kernel drivers and tools to assist with debugging running firmware images.

3) ASoC Linux kernel drivers. An ASoC kernel driver is required to register the DSP and firmware as a kernel audio device and expose PCMs, kcontrols etc. This driver will also load any topology data.

4) Crosstool-NG tool chain. Crosstool-NG is used to build a GNU cross tool chain (gcc, gdb, binutils, etc.) that is used to build the firmware binaries. Other compilers and tool chains can also be used to build the firmware.

5) Qemu DSP and host emulator. Qemu is used to provide a functional emulator to trace and debug driver and DSP firmware code simultaneously.

This page is currently work in progress so please expect frequent updates and corrections.

Installing the SDK

The instructions install the firmware and SDK in the ~/sof-sdk directory, but this can be any directory of your choice.

Please install the following dependencies required for the SDK if you dont already have them installed.

apt-get install git autoconf libtool gperf bison flex libtool libtool-bin libncurses5-dev

1. Install the firmware image tools.

These tools are used to convert ELF binaries into the file format used by the kernel drivers when loading the firmware.

mkdir ~/sof-sdk
cd ~/sof-sdk
git clone git:// soft.git
cd soft.git
make install

This will install the 'rimage' and 'rmbox' tools which are used for firmware image creation and firmware debugging respectively.

2. Build and install the GNU cross compiler tool chain using Crosstool-NG.

A cross tool chain is required to build firmware binaries on x86. This tool chain can either be built from source (e.g. GCC/LLVM) or supplied by the DSP vendor. Luckily crosstool-NG takes all the effort out of building a GNU cross compiler and makes the process quite simple. Sound open Firmware currently just needs the xtensa cross compiler and a modified crosstool-NG is used to build the xtensa cross tool chain. A pre-built xtensa GCC toolchain for Baytrail can be downloaded from [1].

cd ..
git clone ct-ng.git
cd ct-ng.git

Build crosstool-NG

./configure --prefix=`pwd`
make install

Now build the xtensa cross compiler.

./ct-ng xtensa-byt-elf
./ct-ng build

Now add the Xtensa cross compiler to your PATH.


This creates a cross compiler in the builds/xtensa-byt-elf directory but the compiler is missing some headers it needs to build binaries. Luckily these headers can be easily installed by building the Xtensa Newlib C library. :-

cd ..
git clone
cd newlib-xtensa.git
git checkout -b xtensa origin/xtensa
./configure --target=xtensa-byt-elf --prefix=~/sof-sdk/xtensa-root
make install

Please note that the xtensa GCC compiler only generates instructions using the core xtensa ISA and does not vectorize or use media instructions when generating Xtensa binaries (i.e. no automatic SIMD or media instructions generated without hand coding assembler). Cadence does however provide a free download of their optimising compiler tool chain for the Baytrail target here (todo add link).

3. Get the Sound Open Firmware source code.

The firmware source code is hosted using git on

cd ..
git clone git:// sof.git
cd sof.git
./configure --with-arch=xtensa --with-platform=baytrail --with-root-dir=~/sof-sdk/xtensa-root/xtensa-byt-elf --host=xtensa-byt-elf
make bin

This will create a binary firmware image in src/arch/xtensa/ called reef-byt.ri. This image can now be copied to /lib/firmware/intel where it will be loaded by the Baytrail audio DSP driver.

4. Get the Sound Open Firmware Linux driver updates.

The SOF requires some driver updates that are not yet upstream and they can be found here :-

git:// #topic/sof-v4.15 (or newer versions)

This repo can be added as a remote to your existing kernel branch or can be checkout out by :-

cd ..
git clone git://
git checkout -b sof origin/topic/sof-v4.15 (or newer version)

The following configuration options should be set for Minnowboard Max or Asus T100 (prior to v4.15) :-


Kernel config after v4.15+ is (note - best to disable Intel SST drivers as they share PCI/ACPI IDs with SOF driver):-


SST and SOF drivers can still be both be installed, but modprobe will need to know which driver to load. The SOF driver can be loaded by modprobe by using the following blacklist :-

root@turbot:~# cat /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-dsp.conf 
blacklist snd_soc_sst_acpi
blacklist snd_soc_sst_dsp
blacklist snd_soc_sst_firmware
blacklist snd_soc_sst_ipc
blacklist snd_soc_sst_match
blacklist snd_soc_sst_mfld-platform
blacklist snd_soc_skl
blacklist snd_soc_sst_byt_cht_nocodec
blacklist snd_soc_sst_atom_hifi2_platform
blacklist snd_intel_sst_core
blacklist snd_intel_sst_acpi

Instructions for building the kernel can easily be found online or maybe specific for your distro.

The driver requires some more modularisation and IPC updates before it's ready for upstreaming. This will simplify the Kconfig to only a few options. Some of the kernel patches are temporary (marked with -tmp) and will not be required when modularisation work has completed.

5. Optional. Build the Qemu DSP emulator from source.

Qemu needs some extra patches to support heterogeneous virtualization of the guest x86 OS and xtensa firmware. SOF uses the latest qemu-2.7 release with the support for heterogeneous virtualization and audio DSP hardware on top. Please note that the instructions below are for Debian/Ubuntu apt-get users. Note: add package installation instructions for Fedora etc.

cd ..
sudo apt-get install libgtk-3-dev libsdl-dev libspice-protocol-dev libspice-server-dev libusb-1.0-0-dev libusbredirhost-dev libtool-bin iasl valgrind texinfo virt-manager kvm libvirt-bin virtinst
git clone
cd osadsp-qemu.git
./configure --prefix=. --target-list=xtensa-softmmu,x86_64-softmmu --enable-gtk --enable-sdl --enable-spice --audio-drv-list=alsa --enable-libusb --enable-usb-redir --enable-coroutine-pool --disable-opengl --enable-fdt

Please do not install this version of Qemu as it will overwrite your distro version of Qemu.

Running Sound Open Firmware

The firmware image files should be copied to the Linux firmware directory in order for them to be loaded by the ALSA/ASoC drivers. This is usually /lib/firmware but some distributions may use other locations. The Intel platforms use the Intel subdirectory, so firmware should be copied to /lib/firmware/intel for Intel platforms.

The drivers are responsible for making sure the firmware boots once it's been loaded. The firmware will send a "boot complete" IPC message to the driver once it has successfully booted otherwise the driver will time out the firmware boot and report this in the kernel logs.

If the firmware fails to boot then it can be made to dump boot tracing information to the host. Please see firmware debugging.

Sound Open Firmware Architecture

The diagram below shows the high level firmware architecture with the Baytrail platform integration. The firmware is split into four main sections :-

1) Generic micro kernel. The micro kernel manages and abstracts the DSP hardware for the rest of the system. It also exports C APIs for memory allocation, scheduling work, event notifications and power management.

2) Audio components. The audio components can be used to form an audio processing pipeline from host DMA buffer to DSP digital audio interface. Audio components will have a source and sink buffer where they will usually transform or route audio data as part of their processing.

3) Audio task. The audio task manages the audio pipelines at run time. i.e. it manages the transportation of data from source to sink component within the pipeline. The pipelines are currently statically defined in the firmware, but infrastructure is now in place to allow the dynamic creation of pipelines from Linux userspace.

4) Platform drivers. The platform drivers are used to control any external IP to the DSP IP. This will usually be things like DMA engines or DAI (Digital Audio Interface) controllers. These drivers are used by the audio components and pipelines to send/receive data to/from the host and external codecs.


The left hand side of the diagram shows the Linux kernel ASoC driver and the mailbox/doorbell mechanism for IPC between the host and DSP.

Sound Open Firmware Driver Architecture

The ASoC driver architecture for Sound Open Firmware is shown in the diagram below. The driver architecture is also split into four layers, like a protocol stack, each with a different purpose.

1) Machine driver. The ASoC machine driver does all the machine/board audio hardware integration. It also glues the platform driver and drivers for any codec(s) together so they appear as a single ALSA sound card. Sound Open Firmware can reuse existing upstream machine drivers (as only the platform name need changed) or can have bespoke machine drivers.

2) Generic PCM Driver. The PCM driver creates ALSA PCMs, DAPM and kcontrols based on the topology data loaded at run time. The PCM driver also allocates buffers for DMA and registers with run time PM. It is architecture and platform generic code.

3) Generic IPC driver. The IPC driver is the messaging bridge between the host and DSP and defines the messaging ABI and protocol. It is architecture and platform generic code.

4) DSP Platform Driver. The platform driver is a platform specific driver that abstracts the low level platform DSP hardware into a common generic API that is used by the upper layers. This includes code that will initialise the DSP and boot the firmware.


The right hand side of the diagram shows the mailbox/doorbell mechanism and the DSP.

It's intended that the PCM and IPC drivers will be reused without modification on every platform. The platform differentiation will occur via the topology data and firmware. There is also scope for differentiation via the machine driver and platform driver. i.e. ACPI or Device Tree could be used to specify HW configuration.

Debugging Sound Open Firmware

Most small DSP devices that run firmware have limited debug facilities compared to debugging programs on a PC. i.e. there are usually no UARTs, network, GUI or even GPIOs/LEDs to use as a debugging aid when things go wrong. DSP development can sometimes require custom hardware debuggers (e.g via JTAG) or proprietary DSP emulators. Sound Open Firmware provides several free methods to develop and debug DSP firmware.

1) DSP boot tracing.

DSP boot problems can be difficult to debug since the DSP hardware wont be in a fully initialised state. Sound Open Firmware provides a simple platform specific method to trace each step of the boot process. The boot trace can be enabled in include/reef/trace.h by setting TRACE to 1

#define TRACE 1

The firmware trace implementations are platform specific as the IO on each platform may be different. The boot trace method used on the Intel platforms writes to a shared DSP register that is always visible to both host and DSP.

/* Platform defined trace code */
#define platform_trace_point(__x) \
	shim_write(SHIM_IPCDH, ((shim_read(SHIM_IPCDH) & 0xc0000000) |\
		((__x) & 0x3fffffff)))

The firmware boot trace value codes are :-

/* general trace init codes - only used at boot when main trace is not availble */
#define TRACE_BOOT_START	0x1000
#define TRACE_BOOT_ARCH		0x2000
#define TRACE_BOOT_SYS		0x3000
#define TRACE_BOOT_PLATFORM	0x4000

/* system specific codes */

/* platform/device specific codes */

These values should be written by the firmware platform boot trace code where the host driver can read then at any firmware boot failure. The boot failure can then be traced in the kernel log.

2) DSP run time tracing.

The run time tracing is more powerful than boot tracing as it includes timestamps and more verbose information. It is enabled in trace.h like the boot trace.

# define TRACE 1

The run time tracing again has a platform specific implementation like the boot tracing. The Intel platforms write their trace data to a circular buffer in the mailbox area that is shared with the host OS. The trace data can then be read from userspace by using the rmbox tool.

rmbox -o dump

This will display a dump of the current trace buffer :- timestamp 0x3d760104 (41245748.00 us)         delta 0x0000782e (1230.64 us)   comp DPi timestamp 0x3d760134 (41245748.00 us)         delta 0x00000030 (1.92 us)      value 0x000000e0 timestamp 0x3d760238 (41245760.00 us)         delta 0x00000104 (10.40 us)     pipe PWs timestamp 0x3d7602c6 (41245764.00 us)         delta 0x0000008e (5.68 us)      comp VPi timestamp 0x3d760910 (41245828.00 us)         delta 0x0000064a (64.40 us)     comp HPO timestamp 0x3d760a0f (41245840.00 us)         delta 0x000000ff (10.20 us)     pipe PWe timestamp 0x3d760b0b (41245848.00 us)         delta 0x000000fc (10.08 us)     comp HPo timestamp 0x3d768338 (41247080.00 us)         delta 0x0000782d (1230.60 us)   comp DPo timestamp 0x3d76836a (41247084.00 us)         delta 0x00000032 (2.00 us)      value 0x000001e0 timestamp 0x3d76846e (41247092.00 us)         delta 0x00000104 (10.40 us)     pipe PWs timestamp 0x3d7684f9 (41247100.00 us)         delta 0x0000008b (5.56 us)      comp VPo timestamp 0x3d768b47 (41247164.00 us)         delta 0x0000064e (64.56 us)     comp HPI timestamp 0x3d768c44 (41247172.00 us)         delta 0x000000fd (10.12 us)     pipe PWe timestamp 0x3d768d41 (41247184.00 us)         delta 0x000000fd (10.12 us)     comp HPi timestamp 0x3d77056f (41248416.00 us)         delta 0x0000782e (1230.64 us)   comp DPi timestamp 0x3d77059f (41248416.00 us)         delta 0x00000030 (1.92 us)      value 0x000000e0

The trace above shows the trace event, time of the event and delta time to the last event.

3) DSP exception oops.

Sound Open Firmware has a similar crash oops feature to the Linux kernel. It will attempt to dump the DSP registers and stack to a place where the host drivers can read this information upon a DSP firmware crash or exception. The Intel platforms dump the exception data to the mailbox area where it can be read from userspace with the rmbox tool.

rmbox -o dump

The dump data can then be used to check the exception type and addresses (this data is DSP ISA specific - please check your DSP documentation). Sound Open Firmware builds a disassembly map file as part of the build that can be used to lookup symbols. e.g. if the exception address was 0xff2c1053 then shows :-

ff2c1050 <clock_get_freq>:
ff2c1050:	004136               	entry	a1, 32
ff2c1053:	ffb581               	l32r	a8, ff2c0f28 <clock_disable+0xc>  <<< exception was here.
ff2c1056:	902220               	addx2	a2, a2, a2
ff2c1059:	0888                	l32i.n	a8, a8, 0
ff2c105b:	a02280               	addx4	a2, a2, a8
ff2c105e:	0228                	l32i.n	a2, a2, 0
ff2c1060:	f01d                	retw.n

In this example clock_get_freq() can be looked up in the source where additional debug can be performed.

4) Dumping firmware MMIO space, memory and objects to host userspace.

The ASoC SOF drivers expose debugFS files so that DSP memory or IO space can be copied to host OS userspace. This gives visibility of DSP peripheral state and memory state than can be saved to file (and compared with later dumps of the same area when any issues occur). The debugFS file are platform specific with the Intel drivers exposing DMA, SSP, IRAM and DRAM areas. rmbox is used to dump the areas i.e.

rmbox -o dram -i /sys/kernel/debug/dram

More general debug and data object debugging is define in include/reef/debug.h. Macros are defined here that can be inserted into code to copy pointers, structures, memory to the host for inspection.

5) DSP emulator.

All the above debugging methods are also available to be used on the qemu emulator. The qemu emulator also gives developers a rapid functional develop -> test -> debug/trace cycle where additional debugging can be performed. Qemu can dump all DSP/host memories and DSP/host CPU registers. Qemu can also attach GDB to the host kernel and DSP firmware. Please see the following section for details on using the Qemu emulator.

Using the Qemu DSP emulator

The Sound Open Firmware SDK includes heterogeneous virtualization support using qemu to provide a DSP emulator and host emulator with shared MMIO, DMA and IRQs. This allows DSP firmware and host driver binaries of different architectures (e.g. host x86 Linux kernel and xtensa DSP firmware) to run alongside each other as they do in the real hardware. The heterogeneous virtualization means that firmware and driver code can be functionally developed, tested and debugged within a rapid development environment.

Qemu is used to provide a VM for running the host OS (using KVM) and also for running the DSP firmware on another VM. The host and DSP VMs are connected via an IO bridge where they can share memory, MMIO, DMA, peripherals and IRQs. The diagram below shost the host VM on the left and DSP VM on the right.


Setting up Qemu

Nothing needs to be done for the DSP qemu configuration as the DSP firmware binaries are loaded in to the DSP VM memories at runtime by the host VM. The host VM will need a file system image created with your favourite distro. Instruction on creating qemu images can be easily found elsewhere, just remember to leave enough spare room on the FS image for storing audio files and test data.

Running the VMs

SOF provides some helper scripts in the qemu git to start the virtualisation. The first step is to start the DSP VM. Lets call this VM#0

$ ./ byt

bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-iram fd 9 region 0 at 0x7f0447a37000 allocated 81920 bytes
bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-dram fd 10 region 1 at 0x7f04357cf000 allocated 163840 bytes
bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-shim fd 11 region 2 at 0x7f0447a36000 allocated 4096 bytes
bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-mbox fd 12 region 3 at 0x7f0447a35000 allocated 4096 bytes
bridge-io-mq: added /qemu-io-parent-byt
bridge-io-mq: added /qemu-io-child-byt
 ** Baytrail Xtensa HiFi2 EP DSP initialised.
 ** Waiting for host to load firmware...
QEMU 2.7.0 monitor - type 'help' for more information
(qemu) bridge-io: 0 messages are currently on child queue.

The next step is to start the host VM#1 in a separate terminal. The helper script will need modified to point to your VM FS image.

./ byt
2016-10-12T14:23:53.906970Z qemu-system-x86_64: -redir tcp:5555::22: The -redir option is deprecated. Please use '-netdev user,hostfwd=...' instead.
char device redirected to /dev/pts/27 (label charserial0)
QEMU 2.7.0 monitor - type 'help' for more information
(qemu) bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-iram fd 22 region 0 at 0x7f5e1055f000 allocated 81920 bytes
bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-dram fd 23 region 1 at 0x7f5dfd8d7000 allocated 163840 bytes
bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-shim fd 24 region 2 at 0x7f5e1055e000 allocated 4096 bytes
bridge-io: qemu-bridge-byt-mbox fd 25 region 3 at 0x7f5e1055d000 allocated 4096 bytes
bridge-io-mq: added /qemu-io-parent-byt
bridge-io-mq: added /qemu-io-child-byt
bridge-io: 0 messages are currently on parent queue.

At this point the host OS on VM#1 will boot Linux and load the ASoC audio drivers. The ASoC driver will then load the DSP firmware from the VM#1 file system into the VM#0 memory space and then boot VM#0. However, the firmware file will probably not be copied to the VM#1 file system the first time it boots, hence this will need to be copied over before normal driver firmware loading can complete successfully.

Things should now start to appear in both the VM#0 and VM#1 terminals.

000502:904457: read at 50 val 0x00000001
000502:904469: read at 60 val 0x00000000
000502:904473: write 0x60 = 	0x00000001 (old 0x0) 	(00000001) 	|....|
000502:904477: irq: SHIM_IMRLPESC masking 1 mask 1 active 0
000502:904493: timestamp 0x00000643 delta 0x00000095 000502:904494: ipc SNo
000502:904508: read at 74 val 0x400000c2
000502:904511: write 0x74 = 	0x000000c2 (old 0x400000c2) 	(00000194) 	|....|
000502:904515: read at 60 val 0x00000001
000502:904519: write 0x60 = 	0x00000000 (old 0x1) 	(00000000) 	|....|
000502:904522: irq: SHIM_IMRLPESC masking 0 mask 0 active 0
000502:904581: read at 74 val 0x000000c2
000502:904630: read at 44 val 0x00003101
000502:904634: write 0x44 = 	0x00004105 (old 0x3101) 	(00016645) 	|..A.|
000502:904722: timestamp 0x00000882 delta 0x0000023f 000502:904724: ipc SMs

Showing part of VM#0 output

000007:912376: read at 3c val 0x40000000
000007:912384: write 0x38 = 	0x00000000 (old 0x0) 	(00000000) 	|....|
000007:912390: write 0x3c = 	0x00000000 (old 0x40000000) 	(00000000) 	|....|
000007:912397: read at 28 val 0x00000001
000007:912406: write 0x28 = 	0x00000000 (old 0x1) 	(00000000) 	|....|
000007:912410: irq: masking 0 mask 0 active 1
000007:912430: read at 38 val 0x00000000
000007:912436: read at 3c val 0x00000000
000007:912446: write 0x38 = 	0x0d000000 (old 0x0) 	(218103808) 	|....|
000007:912451: write 0x3c = 	0x80000000 (old 0x0) 	(2147483648) 	|....|
000007:912454: irq: send busy interrupt 0x80000000
bridge-io: msg send: 5 type 2 msg 64 size 16 ret 0
bridge-io: msg recv 2 type 2 size 16 msg 64
000007:912769: msg: id 2 msg 64 size 16 type 2
000007:912772: DSP IRQ: status 1 mask 0 active 1 cmd 20028800

Showing part of the VM#1 output

The amount of log trace produced is controlled by defining the appropriate debug macros in qemu/include/hw/adsp/log.h. Please note that log trace configuration is not runtime configurable currently. The log trace can show individual firmware and driver IO to DSP memories, peripherals etc.

Debugging with Qemu

Qemu makes debugging code simpler as both driver and firmware can be run side by side with full memory, IO and register introspection. The qemu command line has many commands to display useful information about the Linux kernel and firmware states. GDB can additionally be attached to the Linux kernel on VM#1 or DSP firmware on VM#0.

1) Start Qemu xtensa VM with a GDB option from below:

comment out the line in

   ./xtensa-softmmu/qemu-system-xtensa -s -S -cpu $CPU -M $ADSP -nographic

Start xtensa VM:

   ./ byt

2) Start Qemu X86 VM:

   ./ byt

3) Start GDB and point it to reef ELF binary

   xtensa-byt-elf-gdb reef/src/arch/xtensa/reef

4) Connect gdb to remote Qemu target

   (gdb) target remote localhost:1234

5) Target firmware can now be debugged with regular GDB commands. e.g. :-

   Reading symbols from reef/src/arch/xtensa/reef...done.
   (gdb) target remote localhost:1234
   Remote debugging using localhost:1234
   wait_for_interrupt () at wait.S:23
   23		abi_return
   (gdb) c
   Program received signal SIGINT, Interrupt.
   wait_for_interrupt () at wait.S:23
   23		abi_return
   (gdb) bt
   #0  wait_for_interrupt () at wait.S:23
   #1  0xff2c0f51 in do_task (argc=argc@entry=-4, argv=argv@entry=0xe0000000) at audio.c:44
   #2  0xff2c0b30 in main (argc=-4, argv=0xe0000000) at init.c:51
   (gdb) c
   (gdb) b ipc_cmd
   (gdb) c


What license does the firmware and SDK use ?

The firmware is released using a standard BSD license with some parts MIT. The SDK is GPL.

Do I need to open source my firmware code changes ?

No. The firmware BSD and MIT licensed code means you can keep code changes private. Patches are always welcomed if do decide to open source work.

What DSP architectures are supported ?

Sound Open Firmware currently supports the Cadence/Tensilica Xtensa audio DSP architecture and ISA.

What host platforms are supported ?

Sound Open Firmware currently supports the Intel Baytrail and Cherrytrail based platforms. This includes devices like the Minnowboard MAX and the ASUS T100 laptop, but should also include any Baytrail or Cherrytrail based devices that have the audio DSP enabled in the BIOS.

The code has also been designed to easily port to other host platform architectures like ARM, MIPS etc.

How can I get involved ?

Please join the developer mailing where new development features and patches are discussed.

What is the development model ?

Sound Open Firmware has a similar development model to the Linux kernel. Patches are discussed and posted on the mailing list before being merged. The release cadence will likely be every 6 - 8 weeks. There will be a stable release tagged after passing QA then development will continue for the next release.

Who is working on Sound Open Firmware ?

Currently Intel is sponsoring development work on the Minnowboard MAX and other Intel based platforms.

How do I add support for DSP architecture X ?

It's straight forward enough to add support for a new DSP architecture. New architectures usually require support in the GNU tool chain, although other tool chains can be used too. It also helps to have qemu support for the architecture in order to provide an emulator.

The main work in adding the new architecture is duplicating and porting the src/arch directory to your new architecture. The code in the architecture directory mainly deals with architecture abstraction and initialisation of any architecture IP like MMU, IRQs and caches alongside providing optimised version of common C functions (memcpy, memset, etc) for that architecture. Adding a new architecture also usually means adding a new host platform too.

How do I add support for host platform X ?

Adding a new host platform is a lot simpler than adding a new DSP architecture. A new host platform consists of adding a new src/platform/ directory, together with mappings for memory, IRQs, GPIOs and peripheral devices in the DSP memory space. New drivers may also have to be added (e.g. for DMA, I2S) to the drivers directory.

How do I port to other OSes ?

There is nothing stopping the firmware working with non Linux based OSes providing a driver exists or can be written for that OS. The main area for potential optimisation in porting to another OS is aligning the IPC (Inter processor Communication) mechanism to the audio driver flow for that OS. Sound Open Firmware has IPC optimised for the ALSA driver flow, but it's easy enough to reuse this IPC on other OSes or add a completely new IPC for the OS of your choice. The IPC ABI is defined in src/include/uapi/ and the IPC IO logic lives in src/ipc/.

The current upstream IPC uses a memory mapped doorbell and mailbox to pass messages between the host and DSP. Non memory mapped IO (like I2C) can also be supported by adding new doorbell and mailbox driver in your platform code.

What audio components are supported ?

Firmware currently supports mixers, volume, DAIs and Host PCMs in the upstream code base. More components are in progress...

How do I create my own pipelines ?

The current upstream supports creating statically defined pipelines in src/audio/static-pipeline.c. This default pipeline can be changed in this file and in the driver to match any new pipeline topology.

Dynamic pipeline topology will be supported upstream soon. This will allow pipelines to be defined at run time in the firmware and driver by using the alsa topology framework.

Can I add my own media encoder/decoders ?


Can I add non audio functions ?

Yes, the instruction sets used by DSPs are also good at non audio processing tasks too. e.g. low power sensor signal processing. Providing your DSP has physical IO ports to connect other non audio devices then it's possible to process data from these devices too.

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